Department of Geology and Geography

The Department of Geology and Geography offers a balance of teaching, research, and service to the region served by the University, and beyond.  Areas of focus among geology faculty include igneous and metamorphic petrology, paleontology, sedimentology, structural geology, hydrogeology, coastal geology, environmental geology, geoscience education, and natural history of the Coastal Plain.  Geography faculty interests include climatology, geomorphology, geospatial analysis, economic geography, health geography, cultural geography, ecohydrology, hazards, and biogeography.  Both programs emphasize the application of Geographic Information Science.

Geology and Geography Minors

Geology and Geography Concentration

GEOG   1101   Introduction to Human Geography

3 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

Basic concepts of cultural geography including characteristics and spatial patterns of population, religions, settlements, economies, languages, nutrition, health, migration, economic development, art, music, and other cultural phenomena.

Cross Listing(s): GEOG   1101H, GEOG   1101S.

GEOG   1101H   Introduction to Human Geography

3 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

Basic concepts of cultural geography including characteristics and spatial patterns of population, religions, settlements, economies, languages, nutrition, health, migration, economic development, art, music, and other cultural phenomena.

Cross Listing(s): GEOG   1101, GEOG   1101S.

GEOG   1101S   Introduction to Human Geography

3 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

Basic concepts of cultural geography including characteristics and spatial patterns of population, religions, settlements, economies, languages, nutrition, health, migration, economic development, art, music, and other cultural phenomena.

Cross Listing(s): GEOG   1101H, GEOG   1101.

GEOG   1110   Climate and the Landscape Lab

1 Credit Hour.   0 Lecture Hours.   2 Lab Hours.

A series of laboratories and exercises designed to provide hands-on applications of general theories regarding earth processes discussed in GEOG   1111, Climate and the Landscape.

Prerequisite(s): Highly recommended to be taken concurrently with GEOG   1111.

GEOG   1111   Climate and the Landscape

3 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

The earth's surface in its areal differentiation. Focuses on the various elements of physical geography that act as a foundation to the discipline, including location and interaction of physical surficial phenomena.

Prerequisite(s): Highly recommended to be taken concurrently with GEOG   1110.

GEOG   1130   World Regional Geography

3 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

Study of geographic regions of the world emphasizing physical landscapes, resources, economies, culture and politics. Selected problems or situations of contemporary interest will be incorporated.

Cross Listing(s): GEOG   1130H, GEOG   1130S.

GEOG   1130H   World Regional Geography

3 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

Study of geographic regions of the world emphasizing Physical landscapes, resources, economies, culture and politics. Selected problems or situations of contemporary interest will be incorporated.

Cross Listing(s): GEOG   1130, GEOG   1130S.

GEOG   1130S   World Regional Geography

3 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

Study of geographic regions of the world emphasizing physical landscapes, resources, economies, culture and politics. Selected problems or situations of contemporary interest will be incorporated.

Cross Listing(s): GEOG   1130, GEOG   1130H.

GEOG   3230S   Economic Geography

3 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

Study of the distribution, production and utilization of the world's basic commodities.

Prerequisite(s): GEOG   1101 or GEOG   1130.

Cross Listing(s): GEOG 3230.

GEOG   3330   Weather and Climate

3 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

Elements and controls of weather and climate and the distribution and characteristics of climate regions.

Prerequisite(s): GEOG   1111.

GEOG   3440   Introduction to GIS and Cartography

0,4 Credit Hours.   0,2 Lecture Hours.   0,4 Lab Hours.

An introduction to the basic concepts, theories, techniques, and applications of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and cartography. Students will learn and apply GIS and cartographic concepts to gain extensive hands-on experience in thematic mapping and manipulation of geo-referenced spatial information using GIS software.

GEOG   4120   Introduction to Research

2 Credit Hours.   2 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

The process of research utilizing the scientific method will be studied. Research methods in human and physical geography are discussed and critiqued. Methodologies including literature searches, topic selection and refinement, and research problem solving will be discussed. A proposal for a research project will be selected or assigned, a proposal written, and an oral presentation of the proposed research will be made. A minimum grade of “B” is required to continue in the research sequence.

Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor required.

GEOG   4130   Biogeography

3 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

Introduces students to biogeography: the study of the distribution of plants and animals. Both historical taxonomic and ecosystems biogeography are covered. The analysis and explanation of spatial patterns of plant and animal distribution, while addressing change in species distribution and evolution in response to climate change and the process of continental drift that have taken place in the past and are taking place today, will be emphasized.

Prerequisite(s): Completion of GEOG   1111 or BIOL   1130 or BIOL   1230 or BIOL   1331 or BIOL   1335 or GEOL   1430.

GEOG   4131   Geography of the American South

3 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

Systematic regional treatment of the South including the physical, cultural and economic aspects of its various regions.

GEOG   4232   Geography of Latin America

3 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

Study of the physical, cultural and economic geography of Latin America, including Mexico.

Cross Listing(s): LAST   4232.

GEOG   4233   Geography of Asia

3 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

A survey of the physical, cultural, political and economic geography of the countries of Asia. Selected problems or situations of contemporary interest will be incorporated.

Cross Listing(s): GEOG   4233S.

GEOG   4233S   Geography of Asia

3 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

A survey of the physical, cultural, political and economic geography of the countries of Asia. Selected problems or situations of contemporary interest will be incorporated.

Cross Listing(s): GEOG   4233.

GEOG   4330   Geography of Africa South of the Sahara

3 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

A survey of the physical, cultural, political and economic geography of Africa south of the Sahara Desert. Selected problems or situations of contemporary interest will be incorporated.

Cross Listing(s): AAST   4330.

GEOG   4430   Geography of Europe

3 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

Survey of the physical, cultural, political and economic geography of Europe. Situations of contemporary interest will be included.

Cross Listing(s): GEOG   4430S.

GEOG   4430S   Geography of Europe

3 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

Survey of the physical, cultural, political and economic geography of Europe. Situations of contemporary interest will be included.

Cross Listing(s): GEOG   4430.

GEOG   4542   Intermediate GIS

0,4 Credit Hours.   0,2 Lecture Hours.   0,4 Lab Hours.

An introduction to advanced data models and spatial data analysis functions of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software, with an emphasis on the conversion among various GIS data formats and geodatabase construction and management.

Prerequisite(s): GEOG   3440.

GEOG   4610   Senior Thesis Seminar

1 Credit Hour.   1 Lecture Hour.   0 Lab Hours.

Proficiency in formal scientific paper presentation will be demonstrated. The student's senior research topic from GEOG 4820 will generate both written and oral presentations made in a formal setting to an audience of professors and peers.

Prerequisite(s): GEOG   4120.

GEOG   4790   Internship in Geography

1-6 Credit Hours.   0 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

The internship allows students to work in a professional setting related to their chosen concentration in the field. Undergraduate students can earn between one and six credits for internships approved by their academic advisor and the Department's Internship Director. Students must maintain contact with the Internship Director through the course of the internship work, and must submit a written report and a work product at the end of the project. Internship credits can be used for elective credit only and may not substitute for specific degree requirements.

Prerequisite(s): Permission of the Geology and Geography Internship Director is required.

GEOG   4830   Senior Thesis Research I

3 Credit Hours.   0 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

Students will complete a literature review and evaluation and conduct independent research as outlined in their research proposal formulated during Introduction to Research (GEOG   4120). Research is conducted under the direction of a faculty advisor and will lead to the completion of the senior thesis.

Prerequisite(s): A minimum grade of "B" in GEOG   4120 and a minimum GPA of 3.0.

GEOG   4831   Senior Thesis Research II

3 Credit Hours.   0 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

The process of scientific communication will be investigated and practiced through completion of a senior thesis project. This project includes both a written thesis and research presentation. Students will format a thesis manuscript suitable for publication in a professional journal and design and deliver an oral presentation suitable for a professional conference.

Prerequisite(s): A minimum grade of "B" in GEOG   4830.

GEOG   5090   Selected Topics

1-9 Credit Hours.   0-9 Lecture Hours.   0-9 Lab Hours.

Offered with or without a lab on an experimental basis.

Cross Listing(s): GEOG   5090S, GEOG   5090G.

GEOG   5090S   Selected Topics

1-9 Credit Hours.   0-9 Lecture Hours.   0-9 Lab Hours.

Offered with or without a lab on an experimental basis.

Cross Listing(s): GEOG   5090, GEOG   5090G.

GEOG   5091   Applied GIS

4 Credit Hours.   0 Lecture Hours.   8 Lab Hours.

Applications of advanced GIS design and modeling to a specific topical and/or geographic area. Topics and studies will be varied over time.

Prerequisite(s): GEOG   3440 and GEOG   4542 and GEOG   5540.

Cross Listing(s): GEOG   5091G.

GEOG   5130   Geography of North America

3 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

Systematic regional treatment of Canada and the United States including the physical, cultural, and economic aspects of various sub regions. Special attention will be paid to comparative themes such as resource development, trade, and migration.

Cross Listing(s): GEOG   5130G.

GEOG   5230   Urban Geography

3 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

An analysis of site, situation, base, principal functions, distribution, supporting areas and internal structure of urban settlements.

Prerequisite(s): GEOG   1101 or GEOG   1130.

Cross Listing(s): GEOG   5230S, GEOG   5230G.

GEOG   5230S   Urban Geography

3 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

An analysis of site, situation, base, principal functions, distribution, supporting areas and internal structure of urban settlements.

Prerequisite(s): GEOG   1101 or GEOG   1130.

Cross Listing(s): GEOG   5230, GEOG   5230G.

GEOG   5231   Economic Geography

3 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

Study of the distribution, production and utilization of the world's basic commodities.

Prerequisite(s): GEOG   1101 or GEOG   1130.

Cross Listing(s): GEOG   5231G.

GEOG   5330   Population Geography

3 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

This course explores issues and themes related to the patterns, processes, and consequences of the spatial distribution of the world’s population. The course is organized around the fundamental components of population change, fertility, mortality, and migration. Current events related to population change and distribution in multiple geographical contexts will constitute a primary focus of the course.

Prerequisite(s): GEOG   1101 or GEOG   1130.

Cross Listing(s): GEOG   5330G.

GEOG   5430   Political Geography

3 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

This course will cover the geography of political behavior from the local to the global scale by examining the relationship of geography and politics. Students will investigate the rapidly changing geopolitics of the era in which they live, with special emphasis on international relations, sovereignty, war, and terrorism. Additionally, the course will focus on redistricting, the Electoral College, and other geographic elements of our American democratic system.

Prerequisite(s): GEOG   1101 or GEOG   1130.

Cross Listing(s): GEOG   5430S, GEOG   5430G.

GEOG   5430S   Political Geography

3 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

This course will cover the geography of political behavior from the local to the global scale by examining the relationship of geography and politics. Students will investigate the rapidly changing geopolitics of the era in which they live, with special emphasis on international relations, sovereignty, war, and terrorism. Additionally, the course will focus on redistricting, the Electoral College, and other geographic elements of our American democratic system.

Prerequisite(s): GEOG   1101 or GEOG   1130.

Cross Listing(s): GEOG   5430.

GEOG   5435   Nature and Society

3 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

This course will examine factors that affect humans’ perspectives on resources and analyze the availability, scarcity, and valuing of natural resources, in addition to conflicts over their use.

Cross Listing(s): GEOG   5435G.

GEOG   5441   Remote Sensing

4 Credit Hours.   2 Lecture Hours.   4 Lab Hours.

This course is designed to introduce the principles and applications of remote sensing and imagery, including electromagnetic energy, the interaction between energy and earth’s surface, remotely sensed data, and the major sensor systems.

Cross Listing(s): GEOG   5441G, GEOG 3741.

GEOG   5530   Cultural Geography

3 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

An examination of the world's diverse cultural landscapes. Emphasis on the connections between social, political, religious and agricultural patterns and the impact of societies on the natural environment.

Prerequisite(s): GEOG   1130 or GEOG   1101.

Cross Listing(s): GEOG   5530G, GEOG 3530.

GEOG   5531   Environmental Impact and Remediation

3 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

This course will introduce students to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), its Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process per the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ), and review criteria regarding whether a Finding Of No Significant Impact (FONSI) or requirement for an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is issued. Students will see how the EIA process can be applied to the workflow of federal projects, from the research phase through planning, remediation, monitoring, evaluation, and improved regulatory enforcement/environmental policy.

Prerequisite(s): A minimum grade of "D" in GEOG   1111.

Cross Listing(s): GEOG   5531G.

GEOG   5540   Advanced GIS

4 Credit Hours.   2 Lecture Hours.   4 Lab Hours.

This course covers the advanced spatial analysis and modeling functions of GIS and offers both fundamental theoretical background and extensive hands-on experience in spatial analysis and modeling. Major topics include network analysis, surface modeling, spatial patterns analysis, spatial data visualization, and basics of spatial statistics.

Prerequisite(s): GEOG   3440 and GEOG   4542.

Cross Listing(s): GEOG   5540G, GEOG 4543.

GEOG   5545   Ecohydrology

4 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   3 Lab Hours.

This course will cover how water interacts to connect the biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems, with a focus on forests. Students will measure hydrologic processes to determine the water budget of an on-campus forest and associate these measurements to ecological processes upon which human society relies (watershed management and sustainable agriculture). This includes training on common and cutting-edge ecohydrological field equipment installation, operation, maintenance, and data analysis techniques. Additionally, students will compare their results to studies around the globe.

Prerequisite(s): A minimum grade of "D" in GEOG   1111.

Cross Listing(s): GEOG   5545G.

GEOG   5590   Field Studies in Geography

3-8 Credit Hours.   3-8 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

An intensive course on a specific region of the world conducted in that region combining lecture, observation and travel. Students usually will bear tuition, travel and living expenses during the course. May be repeated for credit in different regions.

Cross Listing(s): GEOG   5590S, GEOG   5590G.

GEOG   5590S   Field Studies in Geography

3-8 Credit Hours.   3-8 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

An intensive course on a specific region of the world conducted in that region combining lecture, observation and travel. Students usually will bear tuition, travel and living expenses during the course. May be repeated for credit in different regions.

Cross Listing(s): GEOG   5590.

GEOG   5890   Directed Study

1-4 Credit Hours.   1-4 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

Independent study for advanced students.

Prerequisite(s): Approval of Department Chair is required.

Cross Listing(s): GEOG   5890S, GEOG   5890G.

GEOG   5890S   Directed Study

1-4 Credit Hours.   1-4 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

Independent study for advanced students.

Prerequisite(s): Approval of Department Chair is required.

Cross Listing(s): GEOG   5890, GEOG   5890G.

GEOL   1011K   Introductory Geosciences I

0,4 Credit Hours.   0,3 Lecture Hours.   0,2 Lab Hours.

This course covers Earth materials and processes.

GEOL   1121   Introduction to the Earth

0,4 Credit Hours.   0,3 Lecture Hours.   0,2 Lab Hours.

An introductory study of the origin and structure of earth materials and the processes which modify Earth's interior and exterior. The laboratory component of this course offers hands-on exercises related to Earth materials, interpretation of topographic and geologic maps, principles of geologic time, and plate tectonic processes.

Cross Listing(s): GEOL   1121H, GEOL   1121S.

GEOL   1121H   Introduction to the Earth Honors

0,4 Credit Hours.   0,3 Lecture Hours.   0,2 Lab Hours.

An introductory study of the origin and structure of earth materials and the processes which modify Earth's interior and exterior. The laboratory component of this course offers hands-on exercises related to Earth materials, interpretation of topographic and geologic maps, principles of geologic time, and plate tectonic processes.

Cross Listing(s): GEOL   1121 and GEOL   1121S.

GEOL   1121S   Introduction to the Earth

0,4 Credit Hours.   0,3 Lecture Hours.   0,2 Lab Hours.

An introductory study of the origin and structure of earth materials and the processes which modify Earth's interior and exterior. The laboratory component of this course offers hands-on exercises related to Earth materials, interpretation of topographic and geologic maps, principles of geologic time, and plate tectonic processes.

Cross Listing(s): GEOL   1121, GEOL   1121H.

GEOL   1122   General Historical Geology

0,4 Credit Hours.   0,3 Lecture Hours.   0,2 Lab Hours.

Discusses the origin and geological history of Earth. Methods of interpretation, fossils, geologic time measurements, time scales, physical and organic development of Earth are taught.

Prerequisite(s): GEOL   1121 may be taken concurrently with permission of instructor.

GEOL   1310   Environmental Geology Lab

1 Credit Hour.   0 Lecture Hours.   2 Lab Hours.

A series of laboratory components that involve hands-on exercises with earth materials and processes which modify the Earth's interior and exterior.

Prerequisite(s): Concurrent or prior completion of GEOL   1121; strongly recommended to be taken concurrently with GEOL   1121.

Cross Listing(s): GEOL   1310H.

GEOL   1310H   Environmental Geology Lab Honors

1 Credit Hour.   1 Lecture Hour.   0 Lab Hours.

A series of laboratory components that involve hands-on exercises with earth materials and processes which modify the Earth's interior and exterior.

Prerequisite(s): Concurrent or prior completion of GEOL   1121; strongly recommended to be taken concurrently with GEOL   1121.

Cross Listing(s): GEOL   1310.

GEOL   1340   Environmental Geology

0,4 Credit Hours.   0,3 Lecture Hours.   0,2 Lab Hours.

An introduction to using geologic principles and knowledge to address problems arising from the interaction between humans and the geologic environment. One major component of the course examines geologic hazards, including flooding, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and coastal erosion. The other component explores important geologic resources, including water, soils, mineral, and energy, and the way modern society depends on these resources. The laboratory portion of the course consists of hands-on data collection, analysis, and problem solving of geologic and environmental problems related to natural hazards and society's use of Earth resources.

Cross Listing(s): GEOL   1310, GEOL   1310H.

GEOL   1340H   Environmental Geology Honors

0,4 Credit Hours.   0,3 Lecture Hours.   0,2 Lab Hours.

An introduction to using geologic principles and knowledge to address problems arising from the interaction between humans and the geologic environment. One major component of the course examines geologic hazards, including flooding, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and coastal erosion. The other component explores important geologic resources, including water, soils, mineral, and energy, and the way modern society depends on these resources. The laboratory portion of the course consists of hands-on data collection, analysis, and problem solving of geologic and environmental problems related to natural hazards and society's use of Earth resources.

GEOL   1430   Dinosaurs, Extinctions and Disasters

3 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

A review of the dynamic processes of extinction, evolution, and change in ancient animal assemblages. Particular attention will be paid to the unique terrestrial communities that were dominated by dinosaurs, mammoths, and other megafauna. We will focus on the effects of meteorite collisions, ice ages, and mass extinction events.

GEOL   1530   Principles of Oceanography

3 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

This course is a survey course dealing with the physical, geological, and ecological features of ocean basins and coastlines, as well as chemical composition of ocean water and oceanic circulation processes.

Cross Listing(s): GEOL   1530H.

GEOL   1530H   Principles of Oceanography (Honors)

3 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

This course is a survey course dealing with the physical, geological, and ecological features of ocean basins and coastlines, as well as chemical composition of ocean water and oceanic circulation processes.

Cross Listing(s): GEOL   1530.

GEOL   3220   Data Management for Geologists

2 Credit Hours.   2 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

This course introduces students to quantitative geological data. Students will be expected to produce professional-looking tables and graphs, and learn how to properly present geological information clearly in written and oral form.

Prerequisite(s): A minimum grade of "C" in GEOL   1121.

GEOL   3520   Field Methods

2 Credit Hours.   0 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

Instruction in the tools and techniques used in the collection of field data, compilation of geologic maps and crossed sections. Students will construct topographic and geologic maps and write geologic reports and abstracts. The course will consist of three main areas; data sources, data collection, and post-processing. Two weekend field trips are required.

Prerequisite(s): Completion of GEOL   3541 and MATH   1112 or MATH   1113.

GEOL   3541   Mineralogy

4 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   3 Lab Hours.

An introduction to morphological crystallography, physical properties and the optical characteristics of the common minerals. Examines the genesis, occurrence, and uses of minerals. Laboratory work consists of study of common crystal forms, hand specimen identification and optical study via the petrographic microscope.

Prerequisite(s): Completion of CHEM   1145 and a minimum grade of "C" in GEOL   1121 and GEOL   1122.

GEOL   3542   Petrology and Petrography

0,4 Credit Hours.   0,3 Lecture Hours.   0,2 Lab Hours.

An introduction to the origin, occurrence, and classification of common igneous and metamorphic rocks. Laboratory work consists of combined microscopic and megascopic study of rocks. A three day field trip across the southern Appalachians provides a field study component.

Prerequisite(s): GEOL   3541 and GEOL   1122.

GEOL   3741   Remote Sensing

4 Credit Hours.   2 Lecture Hours.   4 Lab Hours.

Introduction to the concepts, theory, collection, analysis and applications of remotely sensed spatial information.

Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor required.

Cross Listing(s): GEOG 3741.

GEOL   3790   Teaching Internship in Geology

1-3 Credit Hours.   0 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

Student interns in Introduction to the Earth (GEOL   1121), General Historical Geology (GEOL   1122), or Environmental Geology (GEOL   1340) will participate in teaching the course under the mentorship of a faculty member. Student interns will attend an introductory workshop immediately prior to the start of the semester, will intern in one of the above courses, and meet with the faculty mentor one hour each week. One credit hour is awarded per laboratory section in which the student interns.

Prerequisite(s): A minimum grade of "B" in GEOL   1121 or GEOL   1122 or GEOL   1340.

GEOL   4120   Introduction to Research

2 Credit Hours.   2 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

The process of research will be studied from the scientific method through the process of writing a scientific proposal. Construction of a technical paper and the technical oral presentation will be examined and practiced. Usages of geologic terms will be explained and learned. A proposal for a research paper will be selected or assigned, a proposal written and an oral presentation of the proposal research will be made. A minimum grade of “B” is required to continue in the research sequence.

Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor required.

GEOL   4530   Tectonics

3 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

Processes, structures, and land forms associated with the deformation of the earth's crust are studied including the changes that take place on structures and landforms over time. Scales ranging from local, to regional, to global are incorporated.

Prerequisite(s): GEOL   1121 or GEOL 1110.

GEOL   4610   Senior Seminar

1 Credit Hour.   1 Lecture Hour.   0 Lab Hours.

The process of scientific communication will be investigated and practiced. A final paper on the student's senior research topic will be written and an oral presentation made in a formal "Technical Session" format. The student will learn to prepare visual aids to illustrate his/her paper and talk. The "Technical Session" will be organized and run by students.

Prerequisite(s): GEOL   4830.

GEOL   4790   Internship in Geology

1-6 Credit Hours.   0 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

The internship allows students to work in a professional setting related to their chosen concentration in the field. Undergraduate students can earn between one and six credits for internships approved by their academic advisor and the Department's Internship Director. Students must maintain contact with the Internship Director through the course of the internship work, and must submit a written report and a work product at the end of the project. Internship credits can be used for elective credit only and may not substitute for specific degree requirements.

Prerequisite(s): Permission of Geology and Geography Internship Director is required.

GEOL   4830   Senior Thesis Research I

3 Credit Hours.   0 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

Students will complete a literature review and evaluation and conduct independent research as outlined in their research proposal formulated during Introduction to Research (GEOL   4120). Research is conducted under the direction of a faculty advisor and will lead to the completion of the senior thesis.

Prerequisite(s): A minimum grade of "B" in GEOL   4120 and minimum GPA of 3.0.

GEOL   4831   Senior Thesis Research II

3 Credit Hours.   0 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

The process of scientific communication will be investigated and practiced through completion of a senior thesis project. This project includes both a written thesis and research presentation. Students will format a thesis manuscript suitable for publication in a professional journal, and design and deliver an oral presentation suitable for a professional conference.

Prerequisite(s): A minimum grade of "B" in GEOL   4830.

GEOL   5090   Selected Topics

1-9 Credit Hours.   0-9 Lecture Hours.   0-9 Lab Hours.

This course provides a means by which new courses can be offered for experimental purposes.

Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor required.

Cross Listing(s): GEOL   5090S, GEOL   5090G.

GEOL   5090S   Selected Topics

1-9 Credit Hours.   0-9 Lecture Hours.   0-9 Lab Hours.

This course provides a means by which new courses can be offered for experimental purposes. Permission of instructor required.

Cross Listing(s): GEOL   5090, GEOL   5090G.

GEOL   5130   Geochemistry

3 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

This course covers the theory and applications of stable and radiogenic isotope geochemistry as applied to low-temperature geological processes.

Prerequisite(s): Completion of CHEM   1146 and a minimum grade of "C" in GEOL   1121 and GEOL   1122.

Cross Listing(s): GEOL   5130G.

GEOL   5131   Economic Mineralogy

3 Credit Hours.   2 Lecture Hours.   3 Lab Hours.

An introduction to the origins of industrial and metallic mineral resources, and the exploration, discovery and use of such resources. Laboratory work includes identification and evaluation of mineral resources and visits to mines.

Prerequisite(s): GEOL   3541.

Cross Listing(s): GEOL   5131G.

GEOL   5132   Regional Field Geology

3 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

A field expedition involving geological investigation of a major geologic region of North America. Students will be expected to make geological observations through such techniques as mapping, measuring sections, collecting scientific samples, or other standard techniques, then to analyze and interpret their observations or measurements. A scientific journal or notebook will be used by each student to record data and observations. A final report will be required. Students usually will bear tuition, travel, and living expenses in the field.

Prerequisite(s): GEOL   1121.

GEOL   5140   Vertebrate Paleontology

4 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   2 Lab Hours.

A study of the morphology, classification and geologic significance of vertebrate fossils.

Prerequisite(s): GEOL   1122 or permission of instructor; GEOL   5141 strongly recommended.

Cross Listing(s): GEOL   5140G.

GEOL   5141   Paleontology

0,4 Credit Hours.   0,4 Lecture Hours.   3 Lab Hours.

This course provides an overview of the major principles, applications, and methods of paleontology. Topics covered in the course include, but are not limited to: the formation of fossils, fossil identification and classification, evolution and extinction, biostratigraphy, biogeography, paleoecology, and functional morphology. Labs utilize a diverse collection of invertebrate fossils and paleontology software.

Prerequisite(s): GEOL   1122.

Cross Listing(s): GEOL   5141G.

GEOL   5142   Stratigraphy and Sedimentation

4 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   2 Lab Hours.

Introduction to the principles and application of stratigraphy and biostratigraphy, and principles of sedimentation. Emphasis is placed on concepts of time, time-rock, rock units, sedimentary facies, guide fossils and fossil range and description of rocks in time and space, their correlation and interpretation. Petrologic interpretation and basic laboratory techniques are also demonstrated. The origin and distribution of sedimentary rocks is examined from initial weathering through erosion and transportation, to environments and mechanisms of deposition.

Prerequisite(s): GEOL   3541.

Cross Listing(s): GEOL   5142G.

GEOL   5230   Earth Science

3 Credit Hours.   2 Lecture Hours.   3 Lab Hours.

A systematic study of the earth as a planet, including aspects of its atmosphere, oceans, lithosphere, soils and physiography. The laboratory will emphasize the location and utilization of local, as well as regional materials for earth science teaching and learning. This course cannot be used for upper-level course credit in the Geology BA, Geology BS, or Geology Minor programs.

Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor required.

Cross Listing(s): GEOL   5230G.

GEOL   5231   General Oceanography

3 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

This course is an integrated approach to the study of oceans with special emphasis on geology, chemistry, and biology of ocean basins. Studies will include the ecological, physical, and geological features of ocean basins, as well as chemical composition of ocean water and oceanic circulation processes. This course cannot be used for upper-level course credit in the Geology BA, Geology BS, or Geology Minor programs.

Prerequisite(s): GEOL   1121 or GEOL   5230.

Cross Listing(s): GEOL   5231G.

GEOL   5340   Barrier Island Environmental Geology

4 Credit Hours.   2 Lecture Hours.   6 Lab Hours.

This course is an on site, direct observation study of the physical processes that create barrier islands and drive their geologic and environmental evolution. The course will cover principles of coastal geology and barrier island hydrogeology. Students will observe and document the diverse environments of a Georgia barrier island and the effects of coastal erosion and sea level rise on island environments and wildlife habitat. Students will also explore the anthropogenic impacts to these environments and resources, practice field science observation and documentation skills, and develop research and presentation skills through team research projects during an eight to ten day residence on St. Catherines Island.

Prerequisite(s): Permission of Instructor.

Cross Listing(s): GEOL   5340G.

GEOL   5431   Coastal Geology

3 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

Coastal Geology will comprise an introduction to a variety of coastal environments and landforms as well as the physical and geological processes that shape them. Coastal hazards and issues related to the ecology and management of the coast will also be discussed. The course will include two required weekend fieldtrips to coastal areas in the southeastern United States.

Prerequisite(s): GEOL   1122 or permission of instructor; prior completion of GEOL   5142 strongly recommended.

Cross Listing(s): GEOL   5431G.

GEOL   5440   Structural Geology

0,4 Credit Hours.   0,4 Lecture Hours.   0 Lab Hours.

GA study of geologic structures resulting from rock formation and deformation. Attention will be given to recognition and solution of structural problems.

Prerequisite(s): GEOL   3542 and MATH   1112 or MATH   1113.

Cross Listing(s): GEOL   5440G.

GEOL   5530   Geomorphology

0,3 Credit Hours.   0,2 Lecture Hours.   0,3 Lab Hours.

A systematic study of landforms and the processes which create and modify them.

Prerequisite(s): GEOL   1122 or GEOG   1111.

Cross Listing(s): GEOL   5530G.

GEOL   5541   Hydrogeology

4 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   2 Lab Hours.

A survey of hydrogeology that includes the occurrence, distribution, movement and chemistry of subsurface waters. Emphasizes subsurface hydrology (hydrogeology), but will also include related aspects of surface systems. Major topics covered will include: 1) relationships between precipitation, runoff, and infiltration; 2) porosity and permeability of various earth materials; 3) subsurface movement of water through earth materials; 4) basic chemical characteristics of natural waters; and 5) current water resource issues such as supply, quality, contamination, and remediation.

Prerequisite(s): GEOL   3542.

Cross Listing(s): GEOL   5541G.

GEOL   5542   Advanced Hydrogeology

4 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   2 Lab Hours.

In-depth study of hydrogeologic and geochemical principles with emphasis on quantitative techniques. Various laboratory and field techniques will be covered, including the use of numerical models and aquifer testing.

Prerequisite(s): GEOL   5541.

Cross Listing(s): GEOL   5542G.

GEOL   5740   Sea Turtle Natural History

4 Credit Hours.   2 Lecture Hours.   6 Lab Hours.

A field-based course in which students work as sea turtle conservation scientists by monitoring beaches and documenting and recording nesting activity during an 8 to 10 day residence on St. Catherines Island, Georgia. Students will prepare for field work with two days of lectures on the GSU campus as well as a training session on GA DNR nest monitoring protocols, prior to field work on St. Catherines Island. Students will keep a daily field journal and prepare a paper on loggerhead sea turtles, documenting nesting behavior, nesting habitat, hatchling emergences and threats to hatchlings and adults using images acquired during their daily monitoring activity.

Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor.

Cross Listing(s): GEOL   5740G.

GEOL   5741   Sea Turtle Conservation

4 Credit Hours.   3 Lecture Hours.   8 Lab Hours.

Designed primarily for pre-service and in-service teachers, will introduce students to conservation through the study of Georgia's sea turtles, content and process skills of science through conservation, and the integration of teaching resources and electronic technologies into their classrooms. May meet by distance learning with laboratory content delivered by Internet, distance learning, fax, or e-mail or by self-contained web-based video streaming (SREC). Will average 3 hours of lecture alternate weeks via distance learning and 4-8 credit hours of laboratory on alternate weekends via Internet, e-mail, and hands-on exercises.

Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor required.

Cross Listing(s): GEOL   5741G.

GEOL   5890   Directed Study

1-4 Credit Hours.   0-3 Lecture Hours.   0-3 Lab Hours.

Well prepared geology majors may be permitted to carry on independent study upon the recommendation of one of the geology/geography faculty.

Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor required.

Cross Listing(s): GEOL   5890G.

Chair(s): DALLAS D. RHODES (Emeritus), STEPHEN JEFFREY UNDERWOOD

Professor(s): GALE A. BISHOP (Emeritus), JAMES H. DARRELL (Emeritus), DANIEL B. GOOD (Emeritus), JAMES S. REICHARD, DALLAS D. RHODES (Emeritus), FREDRICK J. RICH, WEI TU, STEPHEN JEFFREY UNDERWOOD, ROBERT KELLY VANCE, MARK R. WELFORD

Associate Professor(s): CHESTER WOOD JACKSON, KATHLYN M. SMITH, CHARLES H. TRUPE (Emeritus), ROBERT A. YARBROUGH

Assistant Professor(s): CHRISTINE MICHELLE HLADIK, JACQUE LYNN KELLY, JOHN TOLAND VAN STAN, XIAOLU ZHOU

Lecturer(s): NICHOLAS CYRIL RADKO, XIZHEN D. SCHENK

Limited-Term Assistant Professor(s): IBRAHIM E. AHMED, RICHARD J.D. BYKOWSKI, STEVE GUGGINO, CLAUDE VICTOR VAN SANT

Limited-Term Instructor(s): DAVID B. BRADLEY, TIMOTHY F. DIEDESCH